§61.45

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§ 61.45 Practical tests: Required aircraft and equipment.

(a) General. Except as provided in paragraph (a)(2) of this section or when permitted to accomplish the entire flight increment of the practical test in a flight simulator or a flight training device, an applicant for a certificate or rating issued under this part must furnish:

(1) An aircraft of U.S. registry for each required test that—

(i) Is of the category, class, and type, if applicable, for which the applicant is applying for a certificate or rating; and

(ii) Has a standard airworthiness certificate or special airworthiness certificate in the limited, primary, or light-sport category.

(2) At the discretion of the examiner who administers the practical test, the applicant may furnish—

(i) An aircraft that has an airworthiness certificate other than a standard airworthiness certificate or special airworthiness certificate in the limited, primary, or light-sport category, but that otherwise meets the requirements of paragraph (a)(1) of this section;

(ii) An aircraft of the same category, class, and type, if applicable, of foreign registry that is properly certificated by the country of registry; or

(iii) A military aircraft of the same category, class, and type, if aircraft class and type are appropriate, for which the applicant is applying for a certificate or rating, and provided—

(A) The aircraft is under the direct operational control of the U.S. Armed Forces;

(B) The aircraft is airworthy under the maintenance standards of the U.S. Armed Forces; and

(C) The applicant has a letter from his or her commanding officer authorizing the use of the aircraft for the practical test.

(b) Required equipment (other than controls). (1) Except as provided in paragraph (b)(2) of this section, an aircraft used for a practical test must have—

(i) The equipment for each area of operation required for the practical test;

(ii) No prescribed operating limitations that prohibit its use in any of the areas of operation required for the practical test;

(iii) Except as provided in paragraphs (e) and (f) of this section, at least two pilot stations with adequate visibility for each person to operate the aircraft safely; and

(iv) Cockpit and outside visibility adequate to evaluate the performance of the applicant when an additional jump seat is provided for the examiner.

(2) An applicant for a certificate or rating may use an aircraft with operating characteristics that preclude the applicant from performing all of the tasks required for the practical test. However, the applicant's certificate or rating, as appropriate, will be issued with an appropriate limitation.

(c) Required controls. Except for lighter-than-air aircraft, and a glider without an engine, an aircraft used for a practical test must have engine power controls and flight controls that are easily reached and operable in a conventional manner by both pilots, unless the Examiner determines that the practical test can be conducted safely in the aircraft without the controls easily reached by the Examiner.

(d) Simulated instrument flight equipment. An applicant for a practical test that involves maneuvering an aircraft solely by reference to instruments must furnish:

(1) Equipment on board the aircraft that permits the applicant to pass the areas of operation that apply to the rating sought; and

(2) A device that prevents the applicant from having visual reference outside the aircraft, but does not prevent the examiner from having visual reference outside the aircraft, and is otherwise acceptable to the Administrator.

(e) Aircraft with single controls. A practical test may be conducted in an aircraft having a single set of controls, provided the:

(1) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;

(2) Test does not involve a demonstration of instrument skills; and

(3) Proficiency of the applicant can be observed by an examiner who is in a position to observe the applicant.

(f) Light-sport aircraft with a single seat. A practical test for a sport pilot certificate may be conducted in a light-sport aircraft having a single seat provided that the—

(1) Examiner agrees to conduct the test;

(2) Examiner is in a position to observe the operation of the aircraft and evaluate the proficiency of the applicant; and

(3) Pilot certificate of an applicant successfully passing the test is issued a pilot certificate with a limitation “No passenger carriage and flight in a single-seat light-sport aircraft only.”