§91.109

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§ 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.

Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 54107, Aug. 31, 2011.

(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon) that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has fully functioning dual controls. However, instrument flight instruction may be given in a single-engine airplane equipped with a single, functioning throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when—

(1) The instructor has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and
(2) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.

(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft in simulated instrument flight unless—

(1) The other control seat is occupied by a safety pilot who possesses at least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft being flown.
(2) The safety pilot has adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in the aircraft adequately supplements the vision of the safety pilot; and
(3) Except in the case of lighter-than-air aircraft, that aircraft is equipped with fully functioning dual controls. However, simulated instrument flight may be conducted in a single-engine airplane, equipped with a single, functioning, throwover control wheel, in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons, when—
(i) The safety pilot has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and
(ii) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.

(c) No person may operate a civil aircraft that is being used for a flight test for an airline transport pilot certificate or a class or type rating on that certificate, or for a part 121 proficiency flight test, unless the pilot seated at the controls, other than the pilot being checked, is fully qualified to act as pilot in command of the aircraft.

Part §91 Subpart B — Flight Rules
§91.101 Applicability • §91.103 Preflight • §91.105 Crewmembers at stations • §91.107 Seatbelts • §91.109 Flight instruction • §91.111 Near other aircraft
§91.113 Right-of-way • §91.115 Right-of-way on water • §91.117 Speed Limits • §91.119 Minimum altitudes • §91.121 Altimeter • §91.123 ATC instructions • §91.125 Light signals
§91.126 Class G • §91.127 Class E • §91.129 Class D • §91.130 Class C • §91.131 Class B • §91.133 Restricted areas • §91.135 Class A
§91.137 TFRs • §91.138 Hawaiian TFRs • §91.139 Emergency traffic • §91.141 Presidential TFRs • §91.143 Space ops • §91.144 High barometric pressure
§91.145 Air shows & and sporting events • §91.146 Charity flights • §91.147 Paying-passenger flights
§91.151 VFR Fuel reserves • §91.153 VFR flight plans • §91.155 VFR weather minimums • §91.157 Special VFR • §91.159 VFR cruising altitude • §91.161 DC ADIZ
§91.167 IFR Fuel reserves • §91.169 IFR flight plans • §91.171 VOR test • §91.173 ATC clearances • §91.175 IFR Takeoffs and landing
§91.177 IFR Minimum altitudes • §91.179 IFR cruising altitudes • §91.180 RVSM • §91.181 Course flown • §91.183 IFR comm. • §91.185 IFR radio failure
§91.187 Malfunctions in IFR • §91.189 Cat II & III ops. • §91.191 Cat II & III manual • §91.193 Certain Cat II ops.