§ 91.109 Flight instruction; Simulated instrument flight and certain flight tests.
Link to an amendment published at 76 FR 54107, Aug. 31, 2011.
(a) No person may operate a civil aircraft (except a manned free balloon) that is being used for flight instruction unless that aircraft has fully functioning dual controls. However, instrument flight instruction may be given in a single-engine airplane equipped with a single, functioning throwover control wheel in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons when—
- (1) The instructor has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and
- (2) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.
(b) No person may operate a civil aircraft in simulated instrument flight unless—
- (1) The other control seat is occupied by a safety pilot who possesses at least a private pilot certificate with category and class ratings appropriate to the aircraft being flown.
- (2) The safety pilot has adequate vision forward and to each side of the aircraft, or a competent observer in the aircraft adequately supplements the vision of the safety pilot; and
- (3) Except in the case of lighter-than-air aircraft, that aircraft is equipped with fully functioning dual controls. However, simulated instrument flight may be conducted in a single-engine airplane, equipped with a single, functioning, throwover control wheel, in place of fixed, dual controls of the elevator and ailerons, when—
- (i) The safety pilot has determined that the flight can be conducted safely; and
- (ii) The person manipulating the controls has at least a private pilot certificate with appropriate category and class ratings.
(c) No person may operate a civil aircraft that is being used for a flight test for an airline transport pilot certificate or a class or type rating on that certificate, or for a part 121 proficiency flight test, unless the pilot seated at the controls, other than the pilot being checked, is fully qualified to act as pilot in command of the aircraft.
|Part §91 Subpart B — Flight Rules|
| §91.101 Applicability • §91.103 Preflight • §91.105 Crewmembers at stations • §91.107 Seatbelts • §91.109 Flight instruction • §91.111 Near other aircraft|
§91.113 Right-of-way • §91.115 Right-of-way on water • §91.117 Speed Limits • §91.119 Minimum altitudes • §91.121 Altimeter • §91.123 ATC instructions • §91.125 Light signals
§91.126 Class G • §91.127 Class E • §91.129 Class D • §91.130 Class C • §91.131 Class B • §91.133 Restricted areas • §91.135 Class A
§91.137 TFRs • §91.138 Hawaiian TFRs • §91.139 Emergency traffic • §91.141 Presidential TFRs • §91.143 Space ops • §91.144 High barometric pressure
§91.145 Air shows & and sporting events • §91.146 Charity flights • §91.147 Paying-passenger flights
§91.151 VFR Fuel reserves • §91.153 VFR flight plans • §91.155 VFR weather minimums • §91.157 Special VFR • §91.159 VFR cruising altitude • §91.161 DC ADIZ
§91.167 IFR Fuel reserves • §91.169 IFR flight plans • §91.171 VOR test • §91.173 ATC clearances • §91.175 IFR Takeoffs and landing
§91.177 IFR Minimum altitudes • §91.179 IFR cruising altitudes • §91.180 RVSM • §91.181 Course flown • §91.183 IFR comm. • §91.185 IFR radio failure
§91.187 Malfunctions in IFR • §91.189 Cat II & III ops. • §91.191 Cat II & III manual • §91.193 Certain Cat II ops.