§91.113

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Situation Regulation
IN DISTRESS An aircraft in distress has the right-of-way over all other air traffic
LANDING Aircraft ... on final approach to land or while landing, have the right-of-way over other aircraft
BALLOON A balloon has the right-of-way over any other category of aircraft
GLIDER A glider has the right-of-way over an airship, powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft
Engine-driven
TOWING / MID-AIR REFUELING An aircraft towing or refueling other aircraft has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft
AIRSHIP An airship has the right-of-way over a powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft
POWERED
PARACHUTE /
WEIGHT-SHIFT-CONTROL (HANG-GLIDER)
AIRPLANE
ROTORCRAFT (HELICOPTER)
OVERTAKING Each aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way...

§ 91.113 Right-of-way rules: Except water operations.

(a) Inapplicability. This section does not apply to the operation of an aircraft on water.

(b) General. When weather conditions permit, regardless of whether an operation is conducted under instrument flight rules or visual flight rules, vigilance shall be maintained by each person operating an aircraft so as to see and avoid other aircraft. When a rule of this section gives another aircraft the right-of-way, the pilot shall give way to that aircraft and may not pass over, under, or ahead of it unless well clear.

(c) In distress. An aircraft in distress has the right-of-way over all other air traffic.

(d) Converging. When aircraft of the same category are converging at approximately the same altitude (except head-on, or nearly so), the aircraft to the other's right has the right-of-way. If the aircraft are of different categories—

(1) A balloon has the right-of-way over any other category of aircraft;
(2) A glider has the right-of-way over an airship, powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft.
(3) An airship has the right-of-way over a powered parachute, weight-shift-control aircraft, airplane, or rotorcraft.
However, an aircraft towing or refueling other aircraft has the right-of-way over all other engine-driven aircraft.

(e) Approaching head-on. When aircraft are approaching each other head-on, or nearly so, each pilot of each aircraft shall alter course to the right.

(f) Overtaking. Each aircraft that is being overtaken has the right-of-way and each pilot of an overtaking aircraft shall alter course to the right to pass well clear.

(g) Landing. Aircraft, while on final approach to land or while landing, have the right-of-way over other aircraft in flight or operating on the surface, except that they shall not take advantage of this rule to force an aircraft off the runway surface which has already landed and is attempting to make way for an aircraft on final approach. When two or more aircraft are approaching an airport for the purpose of landing, the aircraft at the lower altitude has the right-of-way, but it shall not take advantage of this rule to cut in front of another which is on final approach to land or to overtake that aircraft.

Part §91 Subpart B — Flight Rules
§91.101 Applicability • §91.103 Preflight • §91.105 Crewmembers at stations • §91.107 Seatbelts • §91.109 Flight instruction • §91.111 Near other aircraft
§91.113 Right-of-way • §91.115 Right-of-way on water • §91.117 Speed Limits • §91.119 Minimum altitudes • §91.121 Altimeter • §91.123 ATC instructions • §91.125 Light signals
§91.126 Class G • §91.127 Class E • §91.129 Class D • §91.130 Class C • §91.131 Class B • §91.133 Restricted areas • §91.135 Class A
§91.137 TFRs • §91.138 Hawaiian TFRs • §91.139 Emergency traffic • §91.141 Presidential TFRs • §91.143 Space ops • §91.144 High barometric pressure
§91.145 Air shows & and sporting events • §91.146 Charity flights • §91.147 Paying-passenger flights
§91.151 VFR Fuel reserves • §91.153 VFR flight plans • §91.155 VFR weather minimums • §91.157 Special VFR • §91.159 VFR cruising altitude • §91.161 DC ADIZ
§91.167 IFR Fuel reserves • §91.169 IFR flight plans • §91.171 VOR test • §91.173 ATC clearances • §91.175 IFR Takeoffs and landing
§91.177 IFR Minimum altitudes • §91.179 IFR cruising altitudes • §91.180 RVSM • §91.181 Course flown • §91.183 IFR comm. • §91.185 IFR radio failure
§91.187 Malfunctions in IFR • §91.189 Cat II & III ops. • §91.191 Cat II & III manual • §91.193 Certain Cat II ops.