§91.155

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§ 91.155 Basic VFR weather minimums.

(a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section and §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft under VFR when the flight visibility is less, or at a distance from clouds that is less, than that prescribed for the corresponding altitude and class of airspace in the following table:


Airspace Flight visibility Distance from clouds
Class A Not Applicable Not Applicable.
Class B 3 statute miles Clear of Clouds.
Class C 3 statute miles 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.

Class D 3 statute miles 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.

Class E:
Less than 10,000 feet MSL 3 statute miles 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal

At or above 10,000 feet MSL 5 statute miles 1,000 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 1 statute mile horizontal.

Class G:
1,200 feet or less above the surface (regardless of MSL altitude)
Day, except as provided in §91.155(b) 1 statute mile Clear of clouds.
Night, except as provided in §91.155(b) 3 statute miles 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.

More than 1,200 feet above the surface but less than 10,000 feet MSL
Day 1 statute mile 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.

Night 3 statute miles 500 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 2,000 feet horizontal.

More than 1,200 feet above the surface and at or above 10,000 feet MSL 5 statute miles 1,000 feet below.

1,000 feet above. 1 statute mile horizontal.

(b) Class G Airspace. Notwithstanding the provisions of paragraph (a) of this section, the following operations may be conducted in Class G airspace below 1,200 feet above the surface:

(1) Helicopter. A helicopter may be operated clear of clouds if operated at a speed that allows the pilot adequate opportunity to see any air traffic or obstruction in time to avoid a collision.
(2) Airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft. If the visibility is less than 3 statute miles but not less than 1 statute mile during night hours and you are operating in an airport traffic pattern within1/2mile of the runway, you may operate an airplane, powered parachute, or weight-shift-control aircraft clear of clouds.

(c) Except as provided in §91.157, no person may operate an aircraft beneath the ceiling under VFR within the lateral boundaries of controlled airspace designated to the surface for an airport when the ceiling is less than 1,000 feet.

(d) Except as provided in §91.157 of this part, no person may take off or land an aircraft, or enter the traffic pattern of an airport, under VFR, within the lateral boundaries of the surface areas of Class B, Class C, Class D, or Class E airspace designated for an airport—

(1) Unless ground visibility at that airport is at least 3 statute miles; or
(2) If ground visibility is not reported at that airport, unless flight visibility during landing or takeoff, or while operating in the traffic pattern is at least 3 statute miles.

(e) For the purpose of this section, an aircraft operating at the base altitude of a Class E airspace area is considered to be within the airspace directly below that area.

Part §91 Subpart B — Flight Rules
§91.101 Applicability • §91.103 Preflight • §91.105 Crewmembers at stations • §91.107 Seatbelts • §91.109 Flight instruction • §91.111 Near other aircraft
§91.113 Right-of-way • §91.115 Right-of-way on water • §91.117 Speed Limits • §91.119 Minimum altitudes • §91.121 Altimeter • §91.123 ATC instructions • §91.125 Light signals
§91.126 Class G • §91.127 Class E • §91.129 Class D • §91.130 Class C • §91.131 Class B • §91.133 Restricted areas • §91.135 Class A
§91.137 TFRs • §91.138 Hawaiian TFRs • §91.139 Emergency traffic • §91.141 Presidential TFRs • §91.143 Space ops • §91.144 High barometric pressure
§91.145 Air shows & and sporting events • §91.146 Charity flights • §91.147 Paying-passenger flights
§91.151 VFR Fuel reserves • §91.153 VFR flight plans • §91.155 VFR weather minimums • §91.157 Special VFR • §91.159 VFR cruising altitude • §91.161 DC ADIZ
§91.167 IFR Fuel reserves • §91.169 IFR flight plans • §91.171 VOR test • §91.173 ATC clearances • §91.175 IFR Takeoffs and landing
§91.177 IFR Minimum altitudes • §91.179 IFR cruising altitudes • §91.180 RVSM • §91.181 Course flown • §91.183 IFR comm. • §91.185 IFR radio failure
§91.187 Malfunctions in IFR • §91.189 Cat II & III ops. • §91.191 Cat II & III manual • §91.193 Certain Cat II ops.