AIM 1-1-3

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Goffs VORTAC (GFS) on the sectional chart. Goffs transmits on 114.4 MHz.

1-1-3. VHF Omni-directional Range (VOR)

a. VORs operate within the 108.0 to 117.95 MHz frequency band and have a power output necessary to provide coverage within their assigned operational service volume. They are subject to line-of-sight restrictions, and the range varies proportionally to the altitude of the receiving equipment.

NOTE- Normal service ranges for the various classes of VORs are given in Navigational Aid (NAVAID) Service Volumes, paragraph 1-1-8.

b. Most VORs are equipped for voice transmission on the VOR frequency. VORs without voice capability are indicated by the letter “W” (without voice) included in the class designator (VORW).

c. The only positive method of identifying a VOR is by its Morse Code identification or by the recorded automatic voice identification which is always indicated by use of the word “VOR” following the range's name. Reliance on determining the identification of an omnirange should never be placed on listening to voice transmissions by the Flight Service Station (FSS) (or approach control facility) involved. Many FSSs remotely operate several omniranges with different names. In some cases, none of the VORs have the name of the “parent” FSS. During periods of maintenance, the facility may radiate a T-E-S-T code (- D DDD -) or the code may be removed.

d. Voice identification has been added to numerous VORs. The transmission consists of a voice announcement, “AIRVILLE VOR” alternating with the usual Morse Code identification.

e. The effectiveness of the VOR depends upon proper use and adjustment of both ground and airborne equipment.

1. Accuracy. The accuracy of course alignment of the VOR is excellent, being generally plus or minus 1 degree.

2. Roughness. On some VORs, minor course roughness may be observed, evidenced by course needle or brief flag alarm activity (some receivers are more susceptible to these irregularities than others). At a few stations, usually in mountainous terrain, the pilot may occasionally observe a brief course needle oscillation, similar to the indication of “approaching station.” Pilots flying over unfamiliar routes are cautioned to be on the alert for these vagaries, and in particular, to use the “to/from” indicator to determine positive station passage.

(a) Certain propeller revolutions per minute (RPM) settings or helicopter rotor speeds can cause the VOR Course Deviation Indicator to fluctuate as much as plus or minus six degrees. Slight changes to the RPM setting will normally smooth out this roughness. Pilots are urged to check for this modulation phenomenon prior to reporting a VOR station or aircraft equipment for unsatisfactory operation.

Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) — Chapter 1
1-1-1 - 1-1-2 - 1-1-3 - 1-1-4 - 1-1-5 - 1-1-6 - 1-1-7 - 1-1-8 - 1-1-9 - 1-1-10 - 1-1-11 - 1-1-12 - 1-1-13 - 1-1-14 - 1-1-15 - 1-1-16 - 1-1-17 - 1-1-18 - 1-1-19 - 1-1-20 - 1-1-21 - 1-1-22
1-2-1 - 1-2-2 - 1-2-3