AIM 4-2-3

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4-2-3. Contact Procedures

a. Initial Contact.

1. The terms initial contact or initial callup means the first radio call you make to a given facility or the first call to a different controller or FSS specialist within a facility. Use the following format:

(a) Name of the facility being called;

(b) Your full aircraft identification as filed in the flight plan or as discussed in paragraph 4-2-4, Aircraft Call Signs;

(c) When operating on an airport surface, state your position.

(d) The type of message to follow or your request if it is short; and

(e) The word "Over" if required.

EXAMPLE-
1. "New York Radio, Mooney Three One One Echo."
2. "Columbia Ground, Cessna Three One Six Zero Foxtrot, south ramp, I-F-R Memphis."
3. "Miami Center, Baron Five Six Three Hotel, request V-F-R traffic advisories."

2. Many FSSs are equipped with Remote Communications Outlets (RCOs) and can transmit on the same frequency at more than one location. The frequencies available at specific locations are indicated on charts above FSS communications boxes. To enable the specialist to utilize the correct transmitter, advise the location and the frequency on which you expect a reply.

EXAMPLE-
St. Louis FSS can transmit on frequency 122.3 at either Farmington, Missouri, or Decatur, Illinois, if you are in the vicinity of Decatur, your callup should be "Saint Louis radio, Piper Six Niner Six Yankee, receiving Decatur One Two Two Point Three."

3. If radio reception is reasonably assured, inclusion of your request, your position or altitude, and the phrase "(ATIS) Information Charlie received" in the initial contact helps decrease radio frequency congestion. Use discretion; do not overload the controller with information unneeded or superfluous. If you do not get a response from the ground station, recheck your radios or use another transmitter, but keep the next contact short.

EXAMPLE-
"Atlanta Center, Duke Four One Romeo, request V-F-R traffic advisories, Twenty Northwest Rome, seven thousand five hundred, over."

b. Initial Contact When Your Transmitting and Receiving Frequencies are Different.

1. If you are attempting to establish contact with a ground station and you are receiving on a different frequency than that transmitted, indicate the VOR name or the frequency on which you expect a reply. Most FSSs and control facilities can transmit on several VOR stations in the area. Use the appropriate FSS call sign as indicated on charts.

EXAMPLE-
New York FSS transmits on the Kennedy, the Hampton, and the Calverton VORTACs. If you are in the Calverton area, your callup should be "New York radio, Cessna Three One Six Zero Foxtrot, receiving Calverton V-O-R, over."

2. If the chart indicates FSS frequencies above the VORTAC or in the FSS communications boxes, transmit or receive on those frequencies nearest your location.

3. When unable to establish contact and you wish to call any ground station, use the phrase "ANY RADIO (tower) (station), GIVE CESSNA THREE ONE SIX ZERO FOXTROT A CALL ON (frequency) OR (V-O-R)." If an emergency exists or you need assistance, so state.

c. Subsequent Contacts and Responses to Callup from a Ground Facility.

Use the same format as used for the initial contact except you should state your message or request with the callup in one transmission. The ground station name and the word "Over" may be omitted if the message requires an obvious reply and there is no possibility for misunderstandings. You should acknowledge all callups or clearances unless the controller or FSS specialist advises otherwise. There are some occasions when controllers must issue time-critical instructions to other aircraft, and they may be in a position to observe your response, either visually or on radar. If the situation demands your response, take appropriate action or immediately advise the facility of any problem. Acknowledge with your aircraft identification, either at the beginning or at the end of your transmission, and one of the words "Wilco," "Roger," "Affirmative," "Negative," or other appropriate remarks; e.g., "PIPER TWO ONE FOUR LIMA, ROGER." If you have been receiving services; e.g., VFR traffic advisories and you are leaving the area or changing frequencies, advise the ATC facility and terminate contact.

d. Acknowledgement of Frequency Changes.

1. When advised by ATC to change frequencies, acknowledge the instruction. If you select the new frequency without an acknowledgement, the controller's workload is increased because there is no way of knowing whether you received the instruction or have had radio communications failure.

2. At times, a controller/specialist may be working a sector with multiple frequency assignments. In order to eliminate unnecessary verbiage and to free the controller/specialist for higher priority transmissions, the controller/specialist may request the pilot "(Identification), change to my frequency 123.4." This phrase should alert the pilot that the controller/specialist is only changing frequencies, not controller/specialist, and that initial callup phraseology may be abbreviated.

EXAMPLE-
"United Two Twenty-Two on one two three point four" or "one two three point four, United Two Twenty-Two."

e. Compliance with Frequency Changes.

When instructed by ATC to change frequencies, select the new frequency as soon as possible unless instructed to make the change at a specific time, fix, or altitude. A delay in making the change could result in an untimely receipt of important information. If you are instructed to make the frequency change at a specific time, fix, or altitude, monitor the frequency you are on until reaching the specified time, fix, or altitudes unless instructed otherwise by ATC.

REFERENCE-
AIM, ARTCC Communications, Paragraph 5-3-1.

Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) — Chapter 4 — Air Traffic Control
4-1-1 ARTCCs • 4-1-2 Towers • 4-1-3 FSS's • 4-1-4 Recording • 4-1-5 Release of IFR Aircraft • 4-1-6 Visits to Air Traffic Facilities • 4-1-7 Operation Take-off and Operation Raincheck • 4-1-8 Approach Control Service for VFR Aircraft • 4-1-9 Airports Without Operating Control Towers • 4-1-10. IFR Approaches/Ground Vehicle Ops • 4-1-11 UNICOM/MULTICOM Freqs • 4-1-12 UNICOM for ATC • 4-1-13 ATIS • 4-1-14 AFIS • 4-1-15 RADAR Traffic Service • 4-1-16 Safety Alert • 4-1-17 Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft • 4-1-18. VFR Terminal Radar Services • 4-1-19 TEC • 4-1-20 Transponders • 4-1-21 Hazardous Area Reporting • 4-1-22 Airport Reservation Ops • 4-1-23 Requests for Waivers • 4-1-24 Weather Processor
4-2-1 General • 4-2-2 Radio Technique • 4-2-3 Contact Procedures • 4-2-4 Call Signs • 4-2-5 Leased Aircraft • 4-2-6. Ground Call Signs • 4-2-7 Phonetic Alphabet • 4-2-8 Figures • 4-2-9 Altitudes • 4-2-10 Directions • 4-2-11 Speeds • 4-2-12 Time • 4-2-13 Radio Inop Comm. • 4-2-14 VFR Comm.
4-3-1 General • 4-3-2 Towered Airports • 4-3-3 Traffic Patterns • 4-3-4 Visual Indicators at Untowered Airports • 4-3-5 Unexpected Maneuvers • 4-3-6. Use of Runways • 4-3-7 LLWS/Microbursts • 4-3-8 Braking Reports • 4-3-9 Runway Friction • 4-3-10 Intersection Takeoffs • 4-3-11 LAHSO • 4-3-12 Low Approach • 4-3-13 Light Signals • 4-3-14 Comms. • 4-3-15 Departure Delays • 4-3-16 VFR Flights • 4-3-17 VFR Helicopter Ops • 4-3-18 Taxiing • 4-3-19 Low Vis. Taxi • 4-3-20 Exiting the Runway • 4-3-21 Practice Approaches • 4-3-22 Option Approach • 4-3-23 Aircraft Lights • 4-3-24 Flight Inspection/`Flight Check' Aircraft in Terminal Areas • 4-3-25 Hand Signals • 4-3-26 Uncontrolled Airports With ASOS/AWOS
4-4-1 Clearance • 4-4-2 Clearance Prefix • 4-4-3 Clearance Items • 4-4-4 Amended Clearances • 4-4-5 CDR • 4-4-6 Special VFR • 4-4-7 Pilot Responsibility • 4-4-8 VFR-on-top • 4-4-9 VFR/IFR • 4-4-10 Adherence to Clearance • 4-4-11 IFR Separation • 4-4-12 Speed Adjustments • 4-4-13 Runway Separation • 4-4-14 Visual Separation • 4-4-15 Visual Clearing Procedures • 4-4-16 TCAS I & II • 4-4-17 TIS
4-5-1 Radar • 4-5-2 ATCRBS • AIM 4-5-34-5-3 Surveillance Radar • 4-5-4 PAR • 4-5-5 ASDE-X • 4-5-6 TIS • 4-5-7 ADS-B • 4-5-8 TIS-B • 4-5-9 FIS-B • 4-5-10 ADS-R
4-6-1 RVSM Mandate • 4-6-2 • Flight Levels • 4-6-3 Operator Approval • 4-6-4 Flight Planning into RVSM • 4-6-5 Pilot RVSM • 4-6-6 MWA • 4-6-7 Wake Turbulence • 4-6-8 Pilot/Controller Phraseology • 4-6-9 Contingency Actions • 4-6-10 Accommodation of Non-RVSM • 4-6-11 Climb/Descent to/from Flight Levels Above RVSM