AIM 4-2-7

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4-2-7. Phonetic Alphabet

The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO) phonetic alphabet is used by FAA personnel when communications conditions are such that the information cannot be readily received without their use. ATC facilities may also request pilots to use phonetic letter equivalents when aircraft with similar sounding identifications are receiving communications on the same frequency. Pilots should use the phonetic alphabet when identifying their aircraft during initial contact with air traffic control facilities. Additionally, use the phonetic equivalents for single letters and to spell out groups of letters or difficult words during adverse communications conditions. (See TBL 4-2-2.)

TBL 4-2-2 Phonetic Alphabet/Morse Code
Character Morse Code Telephony Phonic
(Pronunciation)
A ∙ — Alfa (AL-FAH)
B — ∙ ∙ ∙ Bravo (BRAH-VOH)
C — ∙ — ∙ Charlie (CHAR-LEE) or
(SHAR-LEE)
D — ∙ ∙ Delta (DELL-TAH)
E Echo (ECK-OH)
F ∙ ∙ — ∙ Foxtrot (FOKS-TROT)
G — — ∙ Golf (GOLF)
H ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ Hotel (HOH-TEL)
I ∙ ∙ India (IN-DEE-AH)
J ∙ — — — Juliett (JEW-LEE-ETT)
K — ∙ — Kilo (KEY-LOH)
L ∙ — ∙ ∙ Lima (LEE-MAH)
M — — Mike (MIKE)
N — ∙ November (NO-VEM-BER)
O — — — Oscar (OSS-CAH)
P ∙ — — ∙ Papa (PAH-PAH)
Q — — ∙ — Quebec (KEH-BECK)
R ∙ — ∙ Romeo (ROW-ME-OH)
S ∙ ∙ ∙ Sierra (SEE-AIR-RAH)
T Tango (TANG-GO)
U ∙ ∙ — Uniform (YOU-NEE-FORM) or
(OO-NEE-FORM)
V ∙ ∙ ∙ — Victor (VIK-TAH)
W ∙ — — Whiskey (WISS-KEY)
X — ∙ ∙ — Xray (ECKS-RAY)
Y — ∙ — — Yankee (YANG-KEY)
Z — — ∙ ∙ Zulu (ZOO-LOO)
1 ∙ — — — — One (WUN)
2 ∙ ∙ — — — Two (TOO)
3 ∙ ∙ ∙ — — Three (TREE)
4 ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ — Four (FOW-ER)
5 ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ Five (FIFE)
6 — ∙ ∙ ∙ ∙ Six (SIX)
7 — — ∙ ∙ ∙ Seven (SEV-EN)
8 — — — ∙ ∙ Eight (AIT)
9 — — — — ∙ Nine (NIN-ER)
0 — — — — — Zero (ZEE-RO)
Aeronautical Information Manual (AIM) — Chapter 4 — Air Traffic Control
4-1-1 ARTCCs • 4-1-2 Towers • 4-1-3 FSS's • 4-1-4 Recording • 4-1-5 Release of IFR Aircraft • 4-1-6 Visits to Air Traffic Facilities • 4-1-7 Operation Take-off and Operation Raincheck • 4-1-8 Approach Control Service for VFR Aircraft • 4-1-9 Airports Without Operating Control Towers • 4-1-10. IFR Approaches/Ground Vehicle Ops • 4-1-11 UNICOM/MULTICOM Freqs • 4-1-12 UNICOM for ATC • 4-1-13 ATIS • 4-1-14 AFIS • 4-1-15 RADAR Traffic Service • 4-1-16 Safety Alert • 4-1-17 Radar Assistance to VFR Aircraft • 4-1-18. VFR Terminal Radar Services • 4-1-19 TEC • 4-1-20 Transponders • 4-1-21 Hazardous Area Reporting • 4-1-22 Airport Reservation Ops • 4-1-23 Requests for Waivers • 4-1-24 Weather Processor
4-2-1 General • 4-2-2 Radio Technique • 4-2-3 Contact Procedures • 4-2-4 Call Signs • 4-2-5 Leased Aircraft • 4-2-6. Ground Call Signs • 4-2-7 Phonetic Alphabet • 4-2-8 Figures • 4-2-9 Altitudes • 4-2-10 Directions • 4-2-11 Speeds • 4-2-12 Time • 4-2-13 Radio Inop Comm. • 4-2-14 VFR Comm.
4-3-1 General • 4-3-2 Towered Airports • 4-3-3 Traffic Patterns • 4-3-4 Visual Indicators at Untowered Airports • 4-3-5 Unexpected Maneuvers • 4-3-6. Use of Runways • 4-3-7 LLWS/Microbursts • 4-3-8 Braking Reports • 4-3-9 Runway Friction • 4-3-10 Intersection Takeoffs • 4-3-11 LAHSO • 4-3-12 Low Approach • 4-3-13 Light Signals • 4-3-14 Comms. • 4-3-15 Departure Delays • 4-3-16 VFR Flights • 4-3-17 VFR Helicopter Ops • 4-3-18 Taxiing • 4-3-19 Low Vis. Taxi • 4-3-20 Exiting the Runway • 4-3-21 Practice Approaches • 4-3-22 Option Approach • 4-3-23 Aircraft Lights • 4-3-24 Flight Inspection/`Flight Check' Aircraft in Terminal Areas • 4-3-25 Hand Signals • 4-3-26 Uncontrolled Airports With ASOS/AWOS
4-4-1 Clearance • 4-4-2 Clearance Prefix • 4-4-3 Clearance Items • 4-4-4 Amended Clearances • 4-4-5 CDR • 4-4-6 Special VFR • 4-4-7 Pilot Responsibility • 4-4-8 VFR-on-top • 4-4-9 VFR/IFR • 4-4-10 Adherence to Clearance • 4-4-11 IFR Separation • 4-4-12 Speed Adjustments • 4-4-13 Runway Separation • 4-4-14 Visual Separation • 4-4-15 Visual Clearing Procedures • 4-4-16 TCAS I & II • 4-4-17 TIS
4-5-1 Radar • 4-5-2 ATCRBS • AIM 4-5-34-5-3 Surveillance Radar • 4-5-4 PAR • 4-5-5 ASDE-X • 4-5-6 TIS • 4-5-7 ADS-B • 4-5-8 TIS-B • 4-5-9 FIS-B • 4-5-10 ADS-R
4-6-1 RVSM Mandate • 4-6-2 • Flight Levels • 4-6-3 Operator Approval • 4-6-4 Flight Planning into RVSM • 4-6-5 Pilot RVSM • 4-6-6 MWA • 4-6-7 Wake Turbulence • 4-6-8 Pilot/Controller Phraseology • 4-6-9 Contingency Actions • 4-6-10 Accommodation of Non-RVSM • 4-6-11 Climb/Descent to/from Flight Levels Above RVSM