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VA—Design maneuvering speed (VA)—the maximum speed at which the structural design’s limit load can be imposed (either by gusts or full deflection of the control surfaces) without causing structural damage. It is important to consider weight when referencing this speed. For example, VA may be 100 knots when an airplane is heavily loaded, but only 90 knots when the load is light.

A thorough knowledge of load factors induced by varying degrees of bank and the VA aids in the prevention of two of the most serious types of accidents: inadvertently during excessive diving (and consequently high airspeed) and abrupt pull ups to level flight. One usually leads to the other, thus increasing the load factor.

From the Pilot's Handbook of Aeronautical Knowledge:

VA. The design maneuvering speed. The maximum speed at which full, abrupt control movement can be used without overstressing the airframe.